Glycan-Functionalized Collagen Hydrogels Modulate the Glycoenvironment of a Neuronal Primary Culture

Glycans play a central role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS), so that changes in the glycosylation profile of the cell surface and extracellular matrix components (ECM) is clear in CNS disorders. based treatment strategy using the regenerative biomaterials platform is being increasingly used to target the disease and to study the glyco-mark of physiological and pathological conditions, especially through the use of biomaterials able to recapitulate the natural components and the physical organization of the ECM. Collagen hydrogel has shown potential as a vehicle for the delivery of cells into the brain, and their therapeutic effect can be expanded by functionalizing them to cope with altered glycosylation patterns with certain brain disorders.

The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize the glycan-functionalized tridimensional collagen-based hydrogels that will make contact with and modulate the differentiation of primary neuronal cultures. Advanced system will provide more information about how the glyco-engineered materials can affect glyco-profile original mark during the process of cell differentiation by modulating the glycan expression differential at the network level.

For this purpose, the collagen polymers undergo a one-step reductive amination with maltose (GLC (α1-4) α-GLC) and lactose (Gal (β1-4) β-GLC) so that the structure can be sacrificed pyranosidic reducing sugars (acting as a linker a) and α-GLC and β-Gal residues exposed, respectively. Biopolymer glycoconjugate used to formulate hydrogels that chemically and biologically characterized, and glyco-profile sign of neuronal cultures after treatment hydrogel was analyzed by lectin staining.

Hydrogel conjugated with glucose limited to 2 weeks astrocytic proliferation and promoted an increase in sialylation while reducing the fucosylation by 2-fold. These results show the differential effect of glycan residues present in the matrix in the expression of cellular sugar and thus has the potential to improve the delivery system of cells in the central nervous system.

 Glycan-Functionalized Collagen Hydrogels Modulate the Glycoenvironment of a Neuronal Primary Culture
Glycan-Functionalized Collagen Hydrogels Modulate the Glycoenvironment of a Neuronal Primary Culture

Simple and Complex Sugars in Parkinson’s disease: a Bitter Taste

neural homeostasis depends on both simple and complex sugars (which glycoconjugates), and their metabolic abnormalities responsible for damaging the nerve function and leads to neurodegeneration. glucose levels increase glycation phenomenon, a wide range of non-enzymatic reactions that cause a variety of intermediates and final products are potentially dangerous in neurons. Glycoconjugates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans, contributes to the constitution of the unique features of the membrane and extracellular matrix neurons in the nervous system.

glycosylation defect is often associated with central nervous system disorders and neurodegeneration. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neurons present intracytoplasmic inclusions α-synuclein aggregates are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease together with disorders of autophagy-lysosomal function, oxidative stress, and broken traffic and turnover of membrane components.

Ibrutinib drug-Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Conjugate

IBT15-BSA 100 ug
EUR 529

Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-BSA protein Conjugate

AV-9330-BSA 10 mg
EUR 286

mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 5,000-linear)

PEG-BSA-05K 100 ug
EUR 286

mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 10,000-linear)

PEG-BSA-10K 100 ug
EUR 286

mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 20,000-linear)

PEG-BSA-20K 100 ug
EUR 286

mPEG-BSA (Molecular Weight: 40,000-linear)

PEG-BSA-40K 100 ug
EUR 286

Glycated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) with ?-Galactose

SPR-203A 0.05 mg
EUR 310
Description: Untagged synthetic panspecies Galactose BSA Glycoconjugate for WB, ELISA. The biological activity of this protein has not yet been tested.

Glycated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) with ?-Galactose

SPR-203B 2x0.05 mg
EUR 457
Description: Untagged synthetic panspecies Galactose BSA Glycoconjugate for WB, ELISA. The biological activity of this protein has not yet been tested.

Glycated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) with ?-Galactose

SPR-203C 4x0.05 mg
EUR 653
Description: Untagged synthetic panspecies Galactose BSA Glycoconjugate for WB, ELISA. The biological activity of this protein has not yet been tested.

(PPPPNAND)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. berghei circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA

PPPP321-BSA 0.5 mg
EUR 529

(DRAAGQPAG)3 peptide (repeat-sequence peptide of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA

DRAA31-BSA 0.5 mg
EUR 529

(NVDP)4 peptide (minor repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA

NVDP41-BSA 0.5 mg
EUR 529

(NANP)5 peptide (25-aa, repeat-sequence peptide of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, CSP) conjugated with BSA

NANP51-BSA 0.5 mg
EUR 529

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

DLR-BSA-Ge-48T 48T
EUR 387
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

DLR-BSA-Ge-96T 96T
EUR 494
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 1-2 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 2 ml aff column

800-302-BSA 1 Kit
EUR 347

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 10-20 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 10 ml aff column

800-310-BSA 1 Kit
EUR 895

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) removal kit (Antibody based aff matrix; sufficient to remove 25-50 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 25 ml aff column

800-325-BSA 1 Kit
EUR 1450

General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

RD-BSA-Ge-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 527

General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

RD-BSA-Ge-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 732

General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

RDR-BSA-Ge-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 551

General Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) ELISA Kit

RDR-BSA-Ge-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 766

Vaccigel Alum adjuvant adsorbed with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA @1 mg/ml), Vaccine adjuvant

AV-1010-BSA 1 ml
EUR 286

Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (1 set) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit

BCA-BSA-1 1 pk
EUR 164

Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (750 ug/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit

BCA-BSA-750 1 ml
EUR 225

D-(+)-Galactose

GB0215 25g
EUR 56.96

D-Galactose

HY-N0210 10mM/1mL
EUR 126

L-(-)-Galactose

GC5727-100MG 100 mg
EUR 110

L-(-)-Galactose

GC5727-250MG 250 mg
EUR 205

L-(-)-Galactose

GC5727-25MG 25 mg
EUR 54

L-(-)-Galactose

GC5727-500MG 500 mg
EUR 341

D-(+)-Galactose

GC7360-100G 100 g
EUR 54

D-(+)-Galactose

GC7360-250G 250 g
EUR 70

D-(+)-Galactose

GC7360-500G 500 g
EUR 94

D-(+)-Galactose

GC7360-5KG 5 kg
EUR 469

D-(+)-Galactose

GC7360-1KG 1 kg
EUR 150

D-(+)-Galactose

abx082116-25g 25 g
EUR 189

D-(+)-Galactose

abx082291-25g 25 g
EUR 203

D-(+)-Galactose

abx082441-25g 25 g
EUR 189

D-Galactose

GAL15-N 10 g
EUR 286

D-Galactose

TBW01610 100mg Ask for price

BSA and BGG Stock standards (1 vial each @ 2 mg/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit

BSA-BGG-1 1 pk
EUR 286

Pre-diluted BSA (bovine serum albumin) standards (250, 125, 62.5, 31.25, and 0.0 ug/ml) for BCA Optima Protein Assay kit

BCA-BSA-2 1 pk
EUR 164

BSA-galactose coated plates for lectin testing by ELISA, 5 plates/pk

GAL16-CP 1 Pk
EUR 408

Galactose Standard, 90UL

C146-90UL 90UL
EUR 123

Galactose Oxidase, 1EA

C147-1EA 1EA
EUR 123

Galactose 1-phosphate

HY-113143 10mg
EUR 108

DSPE-PEG-Galactose

abx085184-2kDa1g 2 kDa; 1 g
EUR 1191

DSPE-PEG-Galactose

abx085184-34kDa1g 3.4 kDa; 1 g
EUR 1191

DSPE-PEG-Galactose

abx085184-5kDa1g 5 kDa; 1 g
EUR 1191

NH2-PEG-Galactose

abx085244-2kDa1g 2 kDa; 1 g
EUR 565

NH2-PEG-Galactose

abx085244-34kDa1g 3.4 kDa; 1 g
EUR 565

NH2-PEG-Galactose

abx085244-5kDa1g 5 kDa; 1 g
EUR 565

Galactose Mutarotase (Recombinant)

20-abx073309
  • EUR 3418.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 1 mg
  • 20 ug
  • 5 ug

Galactose Kinase Antibody

20-abx009234
  • EUR 300.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 189.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 30 ul

Galactose Assay Kit

55R-1459 100 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Galactose in the research laboratory

Galactose Assay Kit

55R-1463 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Galactose in the research laboratory

Galactose Kinase antibody

70R-49778 100 ul
EUR 244
Description: Purified Polyclonal Galactose Kinase antibody

Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 20-40 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 2 ml aff column

800-200-BSA 1 kit
EUR 286

Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 50-100 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 5 ml aff column

800-205-BSA 1 kit
EUR 773

Albumin (Human, Mouse, rat, bovine and others) removal kit (synthetic dye based matrix; sufficient to remove 250-500 mg BSA from Bioprocessed material), 25 ml aff column

800-225-BSA 1 kit
EUR 2425

Human Galactose-Deficient IgA1(Galactose-Deficient IgA1) ELISA Kit

EH4013 96T
EUR 524.1
Description: Method of detection: Indirect ELISA;Reacts with: Homo sapiens;Sensitivity: 8 ng/ml

2-Deoxy-D-galactose

GC5572-10G 10 g
EUR 341

2-Deoxy-D-galactose

GC5572-1G 1 g
EUR 86

2-Deoxy-D-galactose

GC5572-2G 2 g
EUR 126

2-Deoxy-D-galactose

GC5572-5G 5 g
EUR 221

DSPE-PEG-Galactose,10K

LP096072-10K-1g 1g
EUR 852
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

DSPE-PEG-Galactose,2K

LP096072-2K-1g 1g
EUR 852
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

DSPE-PEG-Galactose,3.4K

LP096072-3.4K-1g 1g
EUR 852
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

DSPE-PEG-Galactose,5K

LP096072-5K-1g 1g
EUR 852
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

NH2-PEG-Galactose,10K

HE005072-10K-1g 1g
EUR 359
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

NH2-PEG-Galactose,2K

HE005072-2K-1g 1g
EUR 359
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

NH2-PEG-Galactose,3.4K

HE005072-3.4K-1g 1g
EUR 359
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

NH2-PEG-Galactose,5K

HE005072-5K-1g 1g
EUR 359
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

Acetobromo-Alpha-D-Galactose

abx188579-1kg 1 kg
EUR 2388

PCL(5K)-PEG-Galactose

abx085406-2kDa1g 2 kDa; 1 g
EUR 570

Galactose Kinase Blocking Peptide

20-abx062653
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 411.00
  • 1 mg
  • 5 mg

Recombinant Human Galactose Mutarotase

7-02794 5µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Galactose Mutarotase

7-02795 20µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Galactose Mutarotase

7-02796 1mg Ask for price

Human Galactose ELISA Kit

QY-E05637 96T
EUR 361

EnzyChrom Galactose Assay Kit

EGAL-100 100
EUR 416
Description: Quantitative determination of galactose by colorimetric (570nm) or fluorimetric (530nm/590nm) methods. Procedure: 20 min. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: 10 µM. Shelf life: 3 months. Shipping: on ice; storage: -20°C.

Galactose Mutarotase Recombinant Protein

91-258 0.05 mg
EUR 710.75
Description: Galactose Mutarotase (GALM) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that belongs to the Aldose Epimerase family. GALM is a Mutarotase that converts alpha-Aldose to the beta -Anomer. GALM is active on D-Glucose, L-Arabinose, D-Xylose, D-Galactose, Maltose and Lactose. GALM may be required for normal Galactose metabolism by maintaining the equilibrium of alpha- and beta - anomers of Galactose.

BSA

31C-CH0114 50 mg
EUR 133
Description: Bovine Serum Albumin for use in the research laboratory

Ibrutinib drug-Human Serum Albumin Conjugate

IBT16-BSA 100 ug
EUR 529

Testosterone 3 BSA Protein (BSA)

abx060856-1mg 1 mg
EUR 578

BSA Control for AGE-BSA

35R-AA007 10 mg
EUR 224
Description: BSA Control for AGE protein (BSA modified), Cat No. 30R-AA007

Native Dactylium dendroides Galactose Oxidase

NATE-0273 150 u
EUR 270

Galactose 1-phosphate Potassium salt

HY-113143A 50mg
EUR 165

PCL(5K)-PEG-Galactose, 2K

HE116072-2K-G G
EUR 359
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase (Recombinant)

20-abx073963
  • EUR 1609.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 2 µg

D-Galactose (D-Gal) Antibody

20-abx178973
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Galactose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2126-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Galactose Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K621-100
EUR 512

Histamine [G-BSA] (G-G-BSA)

DAG3327 1mg
EUR 1234

Cyclic citrullinated peptide-BSA(CCP-BSA)

E64I00802 100ug
EUR 343

BSA Antibody

1-CSB-PA272395
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against BSA. Recognizes BSA from Bovine. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, WB;ELISA:1:2000-1:10000, WB:1:1000-1:5000

BSA Antibody

1-CSB-PA000390
  • EUR 222.00
  • EUR 195.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against BSA. Recognizes BSA from Cow. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: WB, ELISA;WB:1:2000-5000

BSA Antibody

1-CSB-PA592874
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against BSA. Recognizes BSA from Bovine. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, WB;ELISA:1:2000-1:10000, WB:1:1000-1:5000

BSA Antigen

IM112 1 ml
EUR 285
Description: BSA Antigen by Cygnus Technologies is available in Europe via Gentaur.

Paromomycin [BSA]

DAG-P2529 1mg
EUR 780

Ciclosporin [BSA]

DAG-WZ017A 1 mg
EUR 1040

Acetaminophen [BSA]

DAG2957 0.5mg
EUR 780

Chloramphenicol [BSA]

DAG2974 1mg
EUR 584

Gentamycin [BSA]

DAG2993 1mg
EUR 715

PCP [BSA]

DAG3015 1 mg
EUR 715

estosterone [BSA]

DAG3023 1mg
EUR 910

Digoxin [BSA]

DAG3043 0.5ml
EUR 715

Methamphetamine [BSA]

DAG3101 1mg
EUR 897

Secobarbital [BSA]

DAG3102 1 mg
EUR 780

Oxazepam [BSA]

DAG3106 1 mg
EUR 897

Carisoprodol [BSA]

DAG3107 1 mg
EUR 780

Biotin [BSA]

DAG3197 1mg
EUR 481

Acrolein [BSA]

DAG3266 100ug
EUR 1040

Agmatine [BSA]

DAG3267 100ug
EUR 845

Carnosine [BSA]

DAG3279 1mg
EUR 1105

Diclofenac [BSA]

DAG3299 1mg
EUR 1105

Dopamine [BSA]

DAG3302 1mg
EUR 1105

Adrenaline [BSA]

DAG3306 1mg
EUR 1364

Glycine [BSA]

DAG3313 250ug
EUR 715

Glyoxal [BSA]

DAG3314 250ug
EUR 780

Ibuprofen [BSA]

DAG3353 1mg
EUR 1221

Malondialdehyde [BSA]

DAG3366 1mg
EUR 1170

Naproxen [BSA]

DAG3370 250ug
EUR 585

Nicotinamide [BSA]

DAG3371 1mg
EUR 845

Pyridoxal [BSA]

DAG3394 1mg
EUR 1235

Pyridoxine [BSA]

DAG3395 1mg
EUR 1235

Riboflavin [BSA]

DAG3399 1mg
EUR 845

Rotenone [BSA]

DAG3400 mg
EUR 780

Buprenorphine [BSA]

DAG394 1mg
EUR 780

Propoxyphene [BSA]

DAG397 1 mg
EUR 1105

Fentanyl [BSA]

DAG398 1 mg
EUR 697

Tramadol [BSA]

DAG399 1mg
EUR 1222

Ketamine [BSA]

DAG400 1mg
EUR 715

Cotinine [BSA]

DAG401 1mg
EUR 780

THC [BSA]

DAG406 1mg
EUR 715

Phenobarbital [BSA]

DAG421 1mg
EUR 845

Theophylline [BSA]

DAG426 10mg
EUR 780

Amoxicillin [BSA]

DAG4461 0.5mg
EUR 780

Ampicillin [BSA]

DAG4462 0.5mg
EUR 780

Apramycin [BSA]

DAG4463 0.5mg
EUR 780

Bacitracin [BSA]

DAG4464 1mg
EUR 780

Cloxacillin [BSA]

DAG4467 0.5mg
EUR 780

Neomycin [BSA]

DAG4470 0.5ml
EUR 780

Streptomycin [BSA]

DAG4472 0.5ml
EUR 780

Melamine [BSA]

DAG4476 1mg
EUR 780

Ractopamine [BSA]

DAGA-001B 1mg
EUR 715

Salbutamol [BSA]

DAGA-002B 1mg
EUR 780

Clenbuterol [BSA]

DAGA-003B 1mg
EUR 780

Pb2+ [BSA]

DAGA-005B 1mg
EUR 1105

Cd2+ [BSA]

DAGA-006B 1mg
EUR 897

Hg2+ [BSA]

DAGA-007B 1mg
EUR 897

Cu2+ [BSA]

DAGA-008B 1mg
EUR 780

Ochratoxin [BSA]

DAGA-012B 1mg
EUR 780

Fumonisin [BSA]

DAGA-014B 1mg
EUR 780

Deoxynivalenol [BSA]

DAGA-016B 1mg
EUR 715

Sterigmatocystin [BSA]

DAGA-017B 1mg
EUR 845

Methyltestosterone [BSA]

DAGA-020B 1mg
EUR 780

Medroxyprogesterone [BSA]

DAGA-021B 1mg
EUR 780

Diethylstilbestrol [BSA]

DAGA-022B 1mg
EUR 714

Hexoestrolum [BSA]

DAGA-023B 1mg
EUR 702

Hydrocortisone [BSA]

DAGA-024B 1mg
EUR 780

Estradiol [BSA]

DAGA-025B 1mg
EUR 715

Nonylphenol [BSA]

DAGA-029B 1mg
EUR 780

Ribavirin [BSA]

DAGA-030B 1mg
EUR 1222

Amantadine [BSA]

DAGA-031B 1mg
EUR 780

Sulfadiazine [BSA]

DAGA-032B 1mg
EUR 780

Sulfaquinoxaline [BSA]

DAGA-033B 1mg
EUR 715

Sulfamethazine [BSA]

DAGA-034B 1mg
EUR 780

Sulfadimethoxine [BSA]

DAGA-035B 1mg
EUR 845

Trimethoprim [BSA]

DAGA-036B 1mg
EUR 832

Florfenicol [BSA]

DAGA-039B 1mg
EUR 715

Kanamycin [BSA]

DAGA-040B 1mg
EUR 715

Lincomycin [BSA]

DAGA-042B 1mg
EUR 780

Pirlimycin [BSA]

DAGA-043B 1mg
EUR 780

Erythrocin [BSA]

DAGA-044B 1mg
EUR 780

Spectinomycin [BSA]

DAGA-045B 1mg
EUR 780

In this review, we chose contributions have recently relevant regarding the direct involvement of glycation and glycosylation stability of α-synuclein, impaired autophagy and function of lysosomes in PD, with a focus on models of potential PD pathogenesis provided by the genetic variants of the enzyme processing glycosphingolipid, especially glucocerebrosidase ( GBA).